African nations leading the green climate transformation

Solar panels are seen during the inauguration ceremony of the solar energy power plant in Zaktubi, near Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, November 29, 2017. REUTERS/Ludovic Marin/Pool/File Photo
Source: POOL

The climate crisis is a global phenomenon that affects every part of the world. Despite being the least responsible for historic carbon emissions, Africa is the most vulnerable region to the devastating effects of climate change.

According to the World Bank, the incidence of droughts in sub-Saharan Africa saw a threefold increase in the decade from 2010 to 2019, in comparison to the data recorded in the 1970s.

Additionally, the Global Centre on Adaptations reports that by the year 2050, the yearly expenditure required for Africa's climate adaptation will amount to US$50 billion. Presently, Africa is allocated US$19.5 billion annually in overall climate financing.

The intensity of the crisis makes it imperative now more than ever for global leaders to take swift and decisive action to weaken its consequences.

Here are a few African countries that are leading the charge in the global efforts to combat the climate crisis and create a more sustainable future:


Mozambique is at the forefront of tackling the climate crisis with its innovative programme, Improving Local Climate Resilience in Mozambique (MERCIM). This groundbreaking initiative empowers local governments to deliver climate-resilient essential services to communities and make informed decisions guided by local expertise. The programme's impact was evident in 2023, as Mozambique faced the second landfall of Cyclone Freddy. By enhancing local governments' preparedness and response capabilities, MERCIM played a crucial role in lessening the disaster's effects, alongside other strategic policies and actions. Notably, the United Nations Capital Development Fund observed a significant reduction in the number of fatalities and displaced individuals compared to previous cyclones of similar intensity, demonstrating the programme's tangible success.


Kenya took a significant step towards a sustainable future in 2020 with the launch of the Kenya National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy. This comprehensive roadmap is driving the country's green transformation and prioritising energy efficiency to enhance the quality of life for its citizens. The strategy outlines a clear path to achieve its ambitious energy efficiency goals, including a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. By implementing this strategy, Kenya aims to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels, reduce climate change, and improve the overall well-being of its population. This forward-thinking approach positions Kenya as a leader in Africa's clean energy transition.


Rwanda has pioneered the fight against plastic waste since 2008 when it implemented a nationwide ban on plastic bags. The impact has been remarkable, with the country earning a reputation as the cleanest in Africa. But that's not all - the ban has also had a significant positive impact on the environment. By eliminating plastic bags, Rwanda has reduced the amount of plastic waste that contributes to flooding, crop damage, and other environmental problems. The ban is so effective that those caught smuggling plastic bags into the country can face serious consequences, including jail time.


Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydropower account for an impressive 33% of Morocco's electricity capacity. With its abundant natural resources, the country has immense potential for renewable energy production, positioning it as a leader in the African continent's clean energy transition. This commitment to sustainability is not new; in 2009, Morocco set an ambitious target of achieving 42% renewable power by 2020. Although the goal was not fully met, the country has continued to push forward, setting a new target of 52% renewable electricity by 2030 in 2021.


Africa's most populous country, Nigeria has taken a significant step towards a sustainable energy future by establishing a comprehensive renewable energy policy. This policy aims to increase the country's reliance on clean energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Additionally, it is exploring its wind power potential with projects like the 10 MW Katsina Wind Farm and the 50 MW Kaduna Wind Farm. In a recent development, President Bola Ahmed Tinubu directed all government ministries, departments, and agencies (MDAs) to transition to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-powered vehicles, further demonstrating Nigeria's commitment to reducing its carbon footprint and embracing cleaner energy sources.

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